Rome’s Position in Central Italy.The great result of the Samnite wars was to give Rome the controlling position in central Italy. The Samnites were allowed to retain their own territory and their political independence. But they were compelled to give up all disputed land, and to become the subject allies of Rome. The Samnites were a brave people and fought many desperate battles; but they lacked the organizing skill and resources of the Romans. In this great struggle for supremacy Rome succeeded on account of her persistence and her great fortitude in times of danger and disaster; but more than all else, on account of her wonderful ability to unite the forces under her control.
Increase of the Roman Territory.As a result of these wars, the Roman territory was extended in two directions. On the west side of the peninsula, the greater part of Campania was brought into the Roman domain; and the Lucanians became the subject allies of Rome. On the east side the Sabines were incorporated with Rome, receiving the partial right of citizenship, which in a few years was extended to full citizenship. Umbria was also subdued. The Roman domain now stretched across the Italian peninsula from sea to sea. The inhabitants of Picenum and Apulia also became subject allies.
The New Colonies.In accordance with her usual policy, Rome secured herself by the establishment of new colonies. Two of these were established on the west sideone at Minturnae at the month of the Liris River, and the other at Sinuessa in Campania (map, p. 80). In the south a colony was placed at Venusia, which was the most powerful garrison that Rome had ever established, up to this time. It was made up of twenty thousand Latin citizens, and was so situated as to cut off the connection between Samnium and Tarentum.
SELECTIONS FOR READING
Pelham, Bk. II., Ch. 2, “Conquest of Italy” (1).1
Michelet, Bk. II., Ch. 2, “Conquest of Central Italy” (6).
How and Leigh, Ch. 15, “Conquest of the Italians” (1).
Arnold, Hist., Ch. 33, “Third Samnite War” (2).
Mommsen, Vol. I., Bk. II., “Struggle of the Italians against Rome” (2).
ROMAN ROADS.How and Leigh, p. 555 (1); Leighton, p. 111 (1); Ramsay and Lanciani, pp. 76-78 (8); Guhl and Koner, pp. 341-344 (16); Harper’s Dict. Antiqq., “Via” (8).
1 The figure in parenthesis refers to the number of the topic in the Appendix, where a fuller title of the book will be found.