Contents
Preface

1. Introductory
2. Material, Execution, and
    Ornamentation

3. Knives
4. Probes
5. Forceps
6. Bleeding Cups, Clysters, etc.
7. Cauteries
8. Bone and Tooth Instruments
9. Bladder and Gynaecological
    Instruments

10. Sutures, etc.
11. Étui, etc.

Appendix
I. Inventory of chief instruments
    in various museums

II. Bibliography

Plates
Surgical Instruments in Greek and Roman Times
by John Stewart Milne, M.A., M.D. Aberd.
Oxford: Clarendon Press (1907).



TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY

Hippocrates — Celsus — Rufus of Ephesus — Aretaeus of Cappadocia — Galen — Oribasius — Soranus of Ephesus — Moschion — Caelius Aurelianus — Aetius — Pliny the Younger — Scribonius Largus — Marcellus Empiricus — Theodorus Priscianus — Alexander Trallianus — Paulus Aegineta — Hero of Alexandria — Christian Fathers — The Arabs — Paré — Scultetus — Heister.


CHAPTER II

MATERIAL, EXECUTION, AND ORNAMENTATION

Steel and Iron — Bronze — Copper — Brass — Tin — Lead — Gold — Silver — Horn — Wood — Bone — Ivory — Stone — Execution and Ornamentation — Ringed Ornamentation — Inlaying — Plating — Patina — Finds of Instruments — Herculaneum and Pompeii — Find of Surgeon of Paris — Oculist Severus of Rheims — Oculist Sollemnis of Fonviel — Military Hospital at Baden — Surgeon of Cologne.


CHAPTER III

KNIVES

Cutting instruments — The scalpel handle — Typical form rectangular, with blunt dissector — Round — Octagonal — Mounting the blade — Varieties of blade — Classification — Straight blades with one cutting edge — Scalpel — Bistoury — Scarificator single or multiple — Razor type — Blunt-pointed bistoury — Ring knife for dismembering the foetus — Straight two-edged knives — Galenís long dissecting knife — Phlebotome — Fleams — Katias — Spathion — Hemispathion — Polypus knife — Lithotomy knife — Knife for lithotomy invented by Meges — Perforator for foetal cranium — Probe-pointed bistoury with two edges — Curved bistoury — Crow-bill — Pterygium knife — Knife for plastic operation for entropion — Uvula knife — Tonsil knife — Fistula knife — Curved two-edged blades — Galenís cartilage knife — Curved myrtle-leaf-shaped blade — Shears.


CHAPTER IV

PROBES

Specilla or probe-like instruments — Definition of specillum — κοπάριονμήληὑπάλειπτρον — Materials — Bronze — Silver — Gold — Tin — Wood — Bristle — Flower-stalk — Specillum as sound — Combination of instruments on one shaft — Plain rods — Double olive — Spathomele or spatula-probe — Cyathiscomele or spoon-probe — Ear specillum — Probe with screw thread — Specillum vulnerarium — Handled needle — Ophthalmic probe — Rasping specillum — Trachoma curette (Blepharoxyston) — Styli and styloid specilla — Grooved director — Surgical needle — Dressing needle — Bodkin — Eyed probes — Ligula — Spoons for warming and pouring salves — Tongue depressor — Uterine sounds — Uterine dilators — Bifurcated probe — Y probe — Blunt dissector — Curved dissectors — Sharp hooks — Blunt hooks — Aneurism needle — Strigil — Spoon for applying liquid to uvula.


CHAPTER V

FORCEPS

Epilation — Polypus — Tumour vulsellum — Eyelid fixation forceps — Uvula (Staphylagra) — Forceps for applying caustic to uvula — Pharyngeal.


CHAPTER VI

BLEEDING CUPS, CLYSTERS, ETC.

Bleeding cups — Materials — Glass — Silver — Bronze — Shapes — Syringes — Principles — Rectal — Vaginal and uterine — Bladder — Nose — Sinus — Ear — Insufflator — Cannula for ascites and empyema — Leaden tubes to prevent contraction and adhesion — Calamus scriptorius — Quill.


CHAPTER VII

CAUTERIES

Cautery knife — Trident — Olivary — Gamma-shaped — Obol — Lunated — Nail — Tile — Button — Wedge — Needle — Cautery with tube — Wood — Moxa.


CHAPTER VIII

BONE AND TOOTH INSTRUMENTS

Raspatory — Chisel — Gouge — Lenticular — Hammer — Block — Meningophylax — Drill — Drill with guard (Abaptista) — Saw — Trephine — Perforator for fistula lachrymalis — Bone elevator — Sequestrum forceps — Varix extractor — Blacksmithís tongs — Tooth forceps — Stump forceps — Tooth elevator — Tooth scalers — File — Forceps for extracting weapons — Periosteal elevator for the pericranium — Impellent — Arrow scoop.


CHAPTER IX

BLADDER AND GYNAECOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS

Catheter — Male — Female — Child — Bladder sounds — Lithotomy scoop — Forceps — Lithotrite — Speculum — Rectal — Vaginal — Trivalve — Quadrivalve — Traction hook — Decapitator — Cranioclast — Cephalotribe — Midwifery forceps — Uterine curette — Instrument for destroying foetus in utero — Apparatus for fumigating uterus and vagina — Vaginal pessaries.


CHAPTER X

SUTURES, ETC.

Sponge — Sutures — Serres fines — Band of Antyllus — Sieves and strainers — Mortar — Pestle — Whetstone.


CHAPTER XI

ÉTUI, ETC.

Portable outfit — Probe cases — Scalpel box — Ointment box — Boxes for collyrium sticks — Ointment slabs — Boxes for drugs.


PLATES


 
FORUM ROMANUM